Nail fungal infection (onychomycosis)

гъбички по ноктите

According to scientific statistics, the presence of nail fungus represent between 18-40% of all nail diseases. It is estimated that about 20% of the adult population is affected by this disease and in 99% of cases it is a dermatophyte infection. Read the following lines to find out more about this cause and its other guilty "teammates".

Кои са най-честите причинители на nail fungus?

According to a widely used classification, the fungus is divided into dermatophytes, yeasts and molds.

Dermatophytes. There are over 40 species of dermatophytes, but only some of them can cause disease in humans. They can be divided into three groups, which also tell us the source of the infection: anthropophilic (transmitted from person to person), zoophilic (transmitted from animals) and geophilic (found in soil or vegetables). The most common causes in humans are anthropophilic Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

Yeast. The most important representative in this group is Candida albicans, which is part of the normal flora in the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract and external genitalia. Therefore, detection in cultures is not always considered a pathological combination and the interpretation of a laboratory result alone is not sufficient. It is estimated that every individual in the world has experienced or will experience at least one episode of clinical manifestation of infection with Candida. When examining nail material, they are most often isolated Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis.

Molds. Molds are widespread throughout the world. They are found in the soil, on vegetables, on the leaves of plants, in our homes, including in hospital rooms. Among the causes of nail fungus is found Aspergillus niger.

What do nails infected with the fungus look like?

Toenails are involved much more often than fingernails. Initially, one nail is affected, then the infection spreads to its "neighbors". The fungus usually enters through the free edge of the nail and therefore the clinical symptoms usually start from there. There is a change in the color of the plate (white, yellowish color), onycholysis (separation of the plate from the nail bed), onychodystrophy (a complex term that summarizes various pathological processes - atrophy, thickening, breaking) and a number of other symptoms.

гъбички по ноктите

При съмнение за гъбичките по ноктите на ръцете, задължително трябва да бъдат прегледани и ноктите на краката и кожата между пръстите на долния крайник.


Първо искам да подчератя, че лечение за гъбички на ноктите трябва да се започне едва след извършване на посявка на материал, взет от засегнатия участък. Някои от гъбките растат по-бързо, на други отнема повече време, затова резултатът излиза след 10-14 дни. Едва след него е удачно да се прецезира изборът на медикамент. Лечнието на гъбички по нокитите на краката обикновено продължава 6-12 месеца, а това на ръцете около 3 месеца. Разликата се обуславя от скоростта, с която насраства нокътя, респективно този процес е по-бърз на ръцете. В почти всички случаи от моята практика изписвам системен антимикотичен (противогъбичен) препарат. Не разчитам много на локалните средства в борбата им срещу инфекцията. Те са подходящи като допълнение към перорална терапия, тъй като някои от тях спомагат за по-бързото връщане на естетичен вид на нокътната плочка.

The main drugs are from the group of azole antifungal ferns or terbinafine. I will not specify doses and therapeutic regimens so as not to tempt anyone to self-medicate. It is important to know that these drugs are subject to hepatic metabolism and monthly monitoring of the functions of this organ is required. I do not advise anyone to treat the fungus on their own without visiting a monitoring specialist once a month.


Finally, I want to share with you a great result from a two-month treatment of fungus in a young lady. The therapy will continue until complete recovery of the nail plate and a negative result of culture. At the slightest suspicion of fungus, visit a dermatologist, because this infection is not self-limiting. It progresses to affect all nails and surrounding skin, and this is a gateway for other pathological microorganisms.

гъбички по ноктите

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